vitamin e foods sources vegan
Medically reviewed by Sara Osman,RD,PT

Introduction

Vitamin E is the name for a group of compounds with distinctive antioxidant properties.

Researchers have identified 8 naturally occurring chemical forms, however, alpha-tocopherol is the only compound recognised to meet human needs. [1]

It’s a fat-soluble nutrient that functions as a chain-breaking antioxidant and prevents the spread of free radicals.[1,2]

It is also known to protect skin against harmful UV radiations and hence it is an integral part of the skin’s antioxidant defences [5]. However, UV light exposure can reduce the vitamin E content in the skin. [5]

Also, topical applications can provide certain vitamin E forms that are not available from the diet and due to its lipophilic nature, it can penetrate into all underlying skin layers [5].

Some studies indicate that vitamin e supplementation can help against skin wrinkling or photoprotection.[5]

  • The average α-tocopherol absorption from a usual diet is considered to be around 69-75 %.[3]
  • Because vitamin E is a fat-soluble nutrient, its absorption is enhanced when it is consumed with a meal that contains fat. [2]
  • Vitamin E is absorbed in the intestine and transported to the liver [3].
  • The liver then secretes alpha-tocopherol in very small quantities and approximately 90-99% alpha-tocopherol pools is contained in the adipose tissue. [2,3]
  • Vitamin E is excreted in both the urine and faeces, with faecal elimination being the major mode of excretion due to low intestinal absorption [2].
  • Daily losses of alpha-tocopherol are estimated to be around 4 mg/day[3].

Body Functions

Recommended Daily Intake

how much vitamin e is recommended daily
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Deficiency Symptoms

Vitamin E Food Sources

foods high in vitamin e vegan
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Excessive Intake/ Toxicity Side Effects

Groups At Risk of Vitamin E Deficiency

Vitamin E Interaction With Other Nutrients

  • Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) – Vitamin E requirements may increase when intakes of PUFAs are increased [2]
  • Vitamin K – Taking vitamin E with vitamin K might decrease the effects of vitamin K [8]

Nutrient Profiles For Food Groups

Nuts & Seeds ( i )

Nuts – 3.62 mg
Seeds – 3.59 mg

Fruits ( i )

Raw or frozen – 0.28 mg
Juice – 0.28 mg
Dried – 0.28 mg

Legumes ( i )

Raw – 0.80 mg
Cooked – 0.23 mg

Oils ( i )

Cooking oils – 17.40 mg
Other edible oils – 18.61 mg
Industrial hydrogenated oils – 10.33 mg

Veggies ( i )

Raw/canned veggies – 0.48 mg
Cooked – 0.47 mg
Dried – 0.5 mg

Cereal grains & Flour ( i )

Raw – 0.35 mg
Raw – 0.48 mg
Cooked – 0.1 mg

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Medically reviewed by Sara Osman,RD,PT

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