Function:

  1. vision and eye health
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3546623/
  2. protect and maintain the cornea of the eye
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK431094/
  3. supports immune function
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3471201/
  4. supports both male and female reproduction and embryonic development.
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3257687/
  5. Prevent Macular Degeneration
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5119484/
  6. Potent antioxidant
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4321000/

 

Deficiency symptoms

  1. Dry skin or dermatitis
    https://www.nature.com/articles/ejcn2009148
  2. Severe dry eye and corneal ulceration
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15850971
  3. Night blindness
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25774260
  4. Recurrent abortion
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9857484
  5. Delayed growth
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10648265
  6. Poor wound healing
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11074878

 

 

Foods rich in vitamin A

Recommended daily intake= 900 mcg= 3000 IU

  1. Paprika:
    Contain: 52742 IU
    % Daily value: 1055%

 

  1. Grape leaves:
    Contain: 27520 IU
    % Daily value: 550%

 

 

  1. Sweet potato, cooked, baked in skin, without salt:
    Contain: 19217 IU
    % Daily value: 384%
  2. Carrot, raw [Includes USDA commodity food A099]
    Contain: 16705 IU
    % Daily value: 334%
  3. Broccoli leaves, raw:
    Contain: 16001 IU
    % Daily value: 320%
  4. Kale, raw:
    Contain: 15376 IU
    % Daily value: 308%
  5. Spinach, raw:
    Contain: 9376 IU
    % Daily value: 188%
  6. Lettuce, cos or romaine, raw:
    Contain: 8711 IU
    % Daily value: 174%
  7. Parsley, raw:
    Contain: 8425 IU
    % Daily value: 168%
  8. Pumpkin, raw:
    Contain: 7385 IU
    % Daily value: 148%

Overdose: more than 1,500 mcg daily

The excess: the body stores excess amounts, primarily in the liver, and these levels can accumulate.

Type: fat soluble vitamin
https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminA-HealthProfessional/#h8

Side effects of hypervitaminosis A:

  1. Hypercalcemia leading to nephron-calcinosis and renal impairment
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25119682
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25188737
  2. Hypertension and depression
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15543093
  3. Osteoporosis
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10860393
  4. liver disease
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24563496
  5. spontaneous fracture
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28511966
  6. reduced food intake, and general effects on growth
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29697007