Function:

  1. plays a role in blood clotting
  2. immune response
  3. reproduction
  4. bone formation
  5. carbohydrate metabolism
  6. amino acid and cholesterol metabolism
    https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Manganese-HealthProfessional/

Overdose: more than 11 mg

Excess: more than 90% is excreted in feces and very little is excreted in urine
https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Manganese-HealthProfessional/#h8

Solubility: water insoluble
https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Manganese#section=Solubility

Side effects of high manganese:

  1. tremors
  2. muscle spasms
  3. tinnitus
  4. hearing loss
  5. feeling of being unsteady on one’s feet
  6. mania, insomnia, and depression
    https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Manganese-HealthProfessional/#h8

Recommended daily intake= 420 mg

  1. Tea, instant, unsweetened, powder
    Contain: 133 mg
    %DV: 6651%
  2. Spices, cardamom
    Contain: 28.0 mg
    %DV: 1400%
  3. Spices, bay leaf
    Contain: 8.2 mg
    %DV: 408%
  4. Spices, fennel seed
    Contain: 6.5 mg
    %DV: 327%
  5. Nuts, hazelnuts or filberts
    Contain: 6.2 mg
    %DV: 309%
  6. Nuts, pecans
    Contain: 4.5 mg
    %DV: 225%
  7. Grape leaves, raw
    Contain: 2.9 mg
    %DV: 143%
  8. Soybeans, mature seeds, raw
    Contain: 2.5 mg
    %DV: 126%
  9. Lupins, mature seeds, raw
    Contain: 2.4 mg
    %DV: 119%
  10. Nuts, almonds [Includes USDA commodity food A256, A264]
    Contain: 2.3 mg
    %DV: 114%

 

Deficiency symptoms

 

  1. Inhibit bone growth
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24578216
  2. High risk for Alzheimer’s disease
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28273828
  3. High risk for infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29913266
  4. impaired reproduction
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27455810
  5. ataxia
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27455810

disorders in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27455810