Function:

  1. Improve cognitive function
    https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0197458004801829?via%3Dihub
  2. Protection against skin damage from sunlight
    https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/96/5/1179S/4577133
  3. Reduce lung cancer risk
    https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fonc.2017.00023/full
  4. Reduce macular degeneration disease risk
    https://www.nei.nih.gov/research/clinical-trials/age-related-eye-disease-study-2-areds2/public-what-areds-means-you
  5. Has anti-oxidant effect
  6. Help prevent cancer
    https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/risk/diet/antioxidants-fact-sheet

 

Overdose: more than 10 mg/ day
https://www.nutri-facts.org/en_US/nutrients/carotenoids/beta-carotene/safety.html

Excess: stored in the fat tissues of the body and outermost layer of the epidermis.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beta-Carotene

 

 

Solubility: fat soluble and water insoluble
http://pennstatehershey.adam.com/content.aspx?productId=107&pid=33&gid=000286
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beta-Carotene

Side effects of excessive beta-carotene supplementation:

  1. Lung cancer risk in heavy smokers
  2. Yellow discoloration of the skin
  3. Increase death risk when consumed with high vitamin E doses
    https://www.nutri-facts.org/en_US/nutrients/carotenoids/beta-carotene/safety.html
  4. Heart disease risk in heavy smokers
    http://pennstatehershey.adam.com/content.aspx?productId=107&pid=33&gid=000286
  5. Prostate cancer risk when consumed with other multivitamins
    https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-999/beta-carotene
  6. Joint pain
    http://pennstatehershey.adam.com/content.aspx?productId=107&pid=33&gid=000286

Recommended daily intake= 500 mcg

https://www.urmc.rochester.edu/encyclopedia/content.aspx?contenttypeid=19&contentid=BetaCarotene

  1. Spices, paprika
    Contain: 27680 mcg
  2. Grape leaves, raw
    Contain: 16193 mcg
  3. Kale, raw
    Contain: 9226 mcg
  4. Sweet potato, raw, unprepared [Includes USDA commodity food A230, Sweet potato]
    Contain: 8509 mcg
  5. Carrots, raw [Includes USDA commodity food A099]
    Contain: 8285 mcg
  6. Turnip greens, raw
    Contain: 6952 mcg
  7. Spinach, raw
    Contain: 5626 mcg
  8. Parsley, raw
    Contain: 5054 mcg
  9. Pumpkin, raw
    Contain: 3100 mcg
  10. Peppers, sweet, red, raw
    Contain: 1624 mcg

 

Deficiency symptoms

  1. eye and skin problems
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30091146
  2. Deficiency in vitamin A because Beta carotenes are source of vitamin A
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17665093
  3. reduces lipid storage capacity
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20573961
  4. reduces immunity because it has antioxidant effect
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24477245
  5. Increase the inflammation rate
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28704820

Increase risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24568502