1. Improve cognitive function
  2. Protection against skin damage from sunlight
  3. Reduce lung cancer risk
  4. Reduce macular degeneration disease risk
  5. Has anti-oxidant effect
  6. Help prevent cancer


Overdose: more than 10 mg/ day

Excess: stored in the fat tissues of the body and outermost layer of the epidermis.



Solubility: fat soluble and water insoluble

Side effects of excessive beta-carotene supplementation:

  1. Lung cancer risk in heavy smokers
  2. Yellow discoloration of the skin
  3. Increase death risk when consumed with high vitamin E doses
  4. Heart disease risk in heavy smokers
  5. Prostate cancer risk when consumed with other multivitamins
  6. Joint pain

Recommended daily intake= 500 mcg

  1. Spices, paprika
    Contain: 27680 mcg
  2. Grape leaves, raw
    Contain: 16193 mcg
  3. Kale, raw
    Contain: 9226 mcg
  4. Sweet potato, raw, unprepared [Includes USDA commodity food A230, Sweet potato]
    Contain: 8509 mcg
  5. Carrots, raw [Includes USDA commodity food A099]
    Contain: 8285 mcg
  6. Turnip greens, raw
    Contain: 6952 mcg
  7. Spinach, raw
    Contain: 5626 mcg
  8. Parsley, raw
    Contain: 5054 mcg
  9. Pumpkin, raw
    Contain: 3100 mcg
  10. Peppers, sweet, red, raw
    Contain: 1624 mcg


Deficiency symptoms

  1. eye and skin problems
  2. Deficiency in vitamin A because Beta carotenes are source of vitamin A
  3. reduces lipid storage capacity
  4. reduces immunity because it has antioxidant effect
  5. Increase the inflammation rate

Increase risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma