Vitamin E


Vitamin e is another fat soluble nutrient that functions as a beneficial antioxidant in the body by preventing the spread of free-radical reactions.[2]

There are approximately eight naturally occurring forms of vitamin E and only a-tocopherol is recognised to meet human needs.[1]

It is known to protect skin against harmful UV radiations and free radicals damage and hence it is an integral part of skin’s antioxidant defenses. [5]

Some studies indicate that vitamin e supplementation can help against skin wrinkling or photoprotection.[5]

Soubility/Storage/absorption and Excretion

Solubility type: Fat soluble
Storage: Vitamin E is absorbed in the intestine and stored in the liver. [2]
Absorption: vitamin E absorption is estimated to be around 51 to 86 percent[3] Because vitamin E is a fat-soluble nutrient, its absorption is enhanced when it is consumed in a meal that contains fat; [2] Vitamin E is excreted in both the urine and feces, with fecal elimination being the major mode of excretion [2]

Body functions

Fights off infection [1]

Immune functions [1]

Anti-inflammatory role for skin [5]

prevent damage induced by free radicals [5]

Wound healing [5]

Helps protect eyesight [6]

Recommended Daily Intake

Deficiency symptoms

  • Muscle weakness [7]
  • Vision problems [7]
  • Immune system changes[7]
  • Numbness [7]
  • Difficulty in walking [7]
  • Poor sense of balance [7]
  • May also cause anaemia [7]

Vegan Food Sources

Side Effects

  • Nausea [8]
  • Diarrhea [8]
  • Intestinal cramps [8]
  • Fatigue [8]
  • Weakness [8]
  • Headache [8]

Groups at risk –

Malabsorption disorders Individuals

Because the digestive tract requires fat to absorb vitamin E, People who have fat-malabsorption disorders are more likely to become deficient than the rest of the population.

Premature babies

Premature babies with very low birth weight (1,500 grams) might be possibly deficient in vitamin E.


Impact on other nutrients

  • Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) – Vitamin E requirements may increase when intakes of PUFAs are increased.[2]
  • Vitamin K – Taking vitamin E with vitamin K might decrease the effects of vitamin K.[8]

Vitamin E and health – diseases

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